Glycolysis itself yields two ATP molecules, so it is the first step of anaerobic respiration. , the product of glycolysis, can be used in to produce ethanol and + or for the production of lactate and NAD+. The production of NAD+ is crucial because glycolysis requires it and would cease when its supply was exhausted, resulting in cell death. A general sketch of the anaerobic steps is shown below. It follows Karp's organization.
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The Electron Transport Chain: During each turn of Krebs cycle, ADP (adenosine diphosphate ) molecule is converted into ATP and 5 pairs of high energy electrons are seized by 5 carrier molecules for further transportation. This generates the electron transport chain. In this step, these high energy electrons are again used to convert ADP into ATP. This chain consists of a network of electron-carrying proteins which are present in the inner membrane of the cell, mitochondrion. Electrons are transferred from one place to another by the proteins. These proteins are responsible for the oxidative phosphorylation (addition of phosphate) and transfer of electrons towards the end of the chain. It is a metabolic process where nutrients are oxidized and energy is released to produce ATP. This is the final aerobic respiration step. In the first two steps, very little energy is produced. Most of the remaining energy which is locked in the glucose molecules, is released in this third step of aerobic respiration. Thus 32-34 ATP molecules are generated during the electron transfer chain. In all, 38 molecules of ATP are generated for every molecule of glucose during various aerobic respiration steps.